Kashmir Struggle for Freedom: Proposed Solutions

Muhammad Aurangzeb, Saleem Akhtar, Kamran Ali, Nasar Hayat, Shamaila Amir


The central cause of incessant tensions and consecutive wars between two nuclear nations i.e. Pakistan and India in South Asia is the Kashmir dispute for the last seventy-three years. Numerous efforts inclusive of multiple dialogues and negotiations were made, but in vain chiefly because of India’s stubborn agenda, and its inflexible policies and approach towards the stance of Kashmir and also unshaken trust deficits between two hostile enemy neighbors. However, with the abrogation of Article 370 and 35(A) Kashmir conflict has turned into different paradigmatic dimensions. It has not only pushed the valley into an unending turmoil with changing the autonomous status of Jammu and Kashmir. It has also created the enormous imbalance in the demographic status of this region as a Muslim majority state in India. Moreover, most of the local Kashmiris have been struggling for the right to self-determination for many decades which was promised to them by the Instrument of Accession of 1947, and the UN resolutions through a Plebiscite.  Therefore, the peaceful solution is the need of the time to make this beautiful heavenly place on earth a place of the mental serene and physical comfort of its inhabitants as they suffering from an ordeal due to the oppression and human rights violations by Indian security forces. This thorny conflict necessitates and also utterly demands a systematic and sustainable solution with the help of the international community and the United Nations. The outcome of this study depicts that the desire for independence in Kashmir is evident, although a feasible solution to this dispute is not possible.

Keywords: Kashmir dispute, struggle for freedom, Pakistan and India, flashpoint of nuclear powers, plebiscite, Instrument of Accession, solution of Kashmir issue, IOK, POK, etc.

Full Text:



Ahmad, K. (2000). The Andorra Model as Final Solution. Himal – Southasian. Retrieved June 13, 2020 from https://www.himalmag.com/the-andorra-model-as-final-solution/

Ahmad, K. (2020). Turning point of Kashmir freedom movement and our responsibility. The News. Retrieved June 1, 2020 from


Ali, S., Saeed, A. (2019). Kashmir Dispute and Challenges to the National Security of Pakistan: An Analysis. Electronic Research Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities. Volume 1. Issue II, pp. 61-77

Amir, S. (2018). Characteristics of Future Military Leadership. Electronic Research Journal of Behavioural Sciences. Volume 1 (2018), pp. 5-16

Ansari, S.F., Effendi, M. S., Haque, R. (2019). Problem-solving decision-making model in Kashmir conflict resolution: prospects and challenges. NDU Journal. Volume 2019.

pp. 1-23

Ashraf, M.M. (2019). Solution of Kashmir dispute. Dawn. Retrieved June 1, 2020

from https://nation.com.pk/13-Dec-2019/solution-of-kashmir-dispute

Freedom. (1828). Mariam Webster. Retrieved June 13, 2020 from


Kashmir and the politics of water. (2011). Aljazeera. Retrieved June 13, 2020 from https://www.aljazeera.com/indepth/spotlight/kashmirtheforgottenconflict/2011/07/20117812154478992.html

Kashmir tensions: “War is not a solution.” (2019). Talk to Aljazeera. Retrieved June 1, 2020 from


Lamb, A. (2003). Kashmir: A Disputed Legacy 1846–1990. Oxford University Press, Pakistan

Naz, S. (2019). Pakistan’s Military Strategy: Challenges and Response.Electronic Research Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities. Volume 1; Issue 1. pp. 58 – 73

Noorani, A.G. (2002). The Dixon Plan. Frontline. Retrieved June 13, 2020 from https://frontline.thehindu.com/the-nation/article30246359.ece

Sehgal, R. (2011). Kashmir Conflict: Solutions and Demand for Self-determination. International Journal of Humanities and Social Science. Vol. 1 No. 6. pp. 188-195

Wirsing, G.R. (1998). India, Pakistan and the Kashmir Dispute. On Regional Conflict and its Resolution. Palgrave Macmillan US

Zamir, A. (2013). Kashmir dispute: Is there a viable solution? Criterion Quarterly.Vol 2, No 4, Retrieved June 1, 2020 from



  • There are currently no refbacks.

International Journal of Social Sciences & Humanities is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License Based on a work at http://www.ijssh.ielas.org